Political parties and their Alliances or Coalitions are generally affected either by the absence or inadequacies of legislation. In Zambia, the legal framework does not explicitly recognize Party Alliances or Coalitions. As a result Alliances and Coalitions have no legal status beyond that of a gentleman’s agreements. The consequences of these inadequate recognition of Coalitions is that in Zambia the position of head of state is unduly strengthened at the expense of alliance and coalition partners. Partner parties are weakened for the fact that they find themselves campaigning for their joint presidential candidate promoting his/her party’s symbol. At the same time, they campaign for their own party in the parliamentary elections, using their own party’s symbol, a practice that often confuses voters and negatively affects chances of parliamentary candidates representing coalition partners that do not field a presidential candidate.
Until recently, as per 2017 Political Party Act, recognizes two or more political parties can form an alliance subject to the deposit of the agreement with the Registra Of society and must be 3 months before the elections.
In Mauritius, any group of political parties wishing to contest an election together must register with the office of the electoral commissioner. The alliance also is required to have its symbols registered with the commissioner. The recognition of an alliance by the institutions allows for fairness and eliminates political jokers among alliance partners.